Ceramic and Stone Tile


Carboxymethyl cellulose or cellulose gum is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone. It is often used as its sodium salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.

CMC is an excellent film-forming agent and color fixing agent is applied in ground glaze and overglaze of ceramic tiles. As glaze is unstable suspending liquid, easy to precipitate, and thixotropic, so the use of CMC ingredients can strengthen the combining powder of glaze and blank.

In Ceramic Industry In ceramics, the special-type Sodium Carboxymethyl cellulose of green body helps to significantly increase the plasticity of pug and the flexural strength of green-ware bodies, as well as to reduce the breakage rate of green-ware bodies.

Sodium Carboxymethyl cellulose can also act as the humidity transducer in porous ceramics.

Titanium dioxide

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO₂.

Titania (TiO2) is a white oxide ceramic and comes in three crystalline forms: 1. Rutile with a tetragonal structure, 2. anatase also with a tetragonal structure, and 3. brookite with an orthorhombic structure.

In ceramic glazes, titanium dioxide acts as an opacifier and seeds crystal formation. It is used as a tattoo pigment and in styptic pencils. Titanium dioxide is produced in varying particle sizes, oil and water dispersible, and in certain grades for the cosmetic industry.
titanium dioxide provides variegation and crystallization to the color and texture of ceramic glazes. It further prevents pollutants including nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide, carbon monoxide from affecting ceramic products.


Kaolin is a unique mineral that has become a widely used material in many industries due to its various properties and different purity.

The major use of kaolin is in the ceramic industry. Kaolin is one of the basic materials in the tile, porcelain, and ceramics industries. Kaolin is used in ceramic products with white body, insulation, and refractory. Kaolin helps to precisely control the mold, drying power, dimensional stability, and creating a smooth final surface in the product. Excellent dielectric properties and high chemical penetration make it suitable for electrical insulators. Refractory properties of this material include dimensional stability, high melting point, low water content, which has made kaolin an important component of this industry.


Feldspars are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth’s continental crust by weight. Feldspars crystallize from magma as both intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks and are also present in many types of metamorphic rock.

In most cases, potassium feldspar is used as the main material for making ceramics and melting aid, while sodium feldspar is used in the preparation of glass and glaze. The aluminum in feldspars replaces some of the silica in the glass, increasing the glass’s physical resistance to objects, bending, and sudden heat.


Bentonite is an absorbent aluminum phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. One of the first findings of bentonite was in the Cretaceous Benton Shale near Rock River, Wyoming.

Bentonite has numerous uses due to its softness, swelling properties, colloidal and good mixing with water, kneading, plasticity, adhesion and adhesion, adsorption, etc.


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